Successful International Cooperation at its Best.

The Montreal Protocol on substances which deplete the ozone layer was an International Treaty for the Protection of the Ozone layer. [1] It was discovered CFCS, HCFC, Freon’s and Halons bonded as a toxic mix of compounds; this resulted in an overall ozone depletion; leading on to photo dissociation, particularly over Antarctica. A more general declaration of the compatibility of the renewable energy subsidies with WTO rules and co-operation is difficult to achieve between a host of nations, yet the Montreal Protocol was fervently supported.

The Montreal protocol successfully banned the production of ODS’s and trichloroethane.

The Montreal Protocol was signed on 16 September 1987, becoming the first ratified treaty in the United Nations history. It came into force on 1 January 1989, and was signed by 167 parties, including the EU, and 169 states across the globe.

Changes in international behavior became evident as the Montreal protocol delivered it’s promise – which was to phase out all HFC ODS’s by the year 2000.[2] The US joined onto the Montreal Protocol. [3] Developing countries were given a ten year grace period the cut the use of ODS’s, during this time the most smuggled item in the world was ODS.

This international agreement, is said to have achieved tremendous results in International Co-operation. As a result the ozone hole in Antarctica, is said to be recovering- it is believed the entire hole will become fully restored back to the 1980 level, between the years 2050-2070.


[1] The ozone layer protects planet earth from the fiercest form of all Ultra Violet Rays, better known as- UVB this is the worst form consisting of wave-lengths 280-315 mm. It was discovered the presence of halogen atoms within the earths stratosphere were formed by halocarbon refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and foam-blowing agents known as CFCS, HCFC, Freon’s and Halons. This toxic mix of compounds resulted in an overall ozone depletion leading on to photo dissociation particularly over Antarctica.

CFCS and other contributory substances were noted to decrease the ozone layer were identified and referred to as Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS).

[2] ICI in UK discovered the OZONE hole over Australia and NZ the discoverer won a noble peace prize. ICI invented another product to replace the harmful OZONE destroying products and USA giant Dupont had the solution both companies benefited as they took over the market-

[3] Bush won the presidency he came to Regan he said I am calling myself the environmental President- Reagan said – it makes sense to tackle OZONE  used in refrigerators, car conditioners even car seats –


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