The GLOBAL COLA BATTLE

 

 

 

 

 

The History of #Pepsi

In 1893, the cola drink Pepsi was invented by an academic pharmacist Caleb Bradham, he studied under a scholarship for over 30 years at the University of North Carolina. Pepsi was invented to assist digestion and aid peptic conditions. Originally called Brads’ drink, Pepsi was sold in Pharmacy’s as a health drink.

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

The History of Pepsi 1

Table of Contents. 2

Pepsi Pete- The World’s First Singing Advertisement 3

Pepsi Time-Line. 4

PEPSI 7

Case Study Analysis. 7

Introduction. 7

Marketing Implications 8

The Mere Exposure Effect 9

Pepsimoji Wedding proposal 10

Beverage Advertising at the USA Super Bowl 1990- 1999. 12

Super Bowl US viewership and advertising costs during 1990–2000 Table. 13

Body of paper 13

Social Influences on Consumer behavior. 14

Normative factors & the TORA model 15

Pepsi Consumer Behaviour Table. 16

Pepsi Products Around the World 2013. 19

Pepsi’s Profit Margin 2009-2014. 20

Pepsi’s latest Socializing marketing campaign. 21

Pepsi’s Classical Conditioning. 21

Pepsi Engages Consumers 22

Conclusion. 23

Reflective Summary. 23

Pepsi Nostalgia. 25

Pepsi Hits the Arab World. 26

Pepsi’s New Corporate Identity and Logo. 27

Design Elements behind the Pepsi Logo. 28

Pepsi Logos Throughout Time. 28

Pepsi and its Afro- American Appeal 29

Pepsi was the First to employ an Afro- American Senior Executive. 30

Pepsi’s Cultural Diversity. 31

Pepsi makes a splash in Asia. 32

The Pepsi ‘More Bounce to the Ounce’ campaign. 34

Pepsi’s Beverage Portfollio. 35

Pepsi cans 36

Pepsi’s Global Revenue 2013. 37

Pepsi in Europe. 38

Pepsi combines Art & Sport 39

The ‘Pepsi Refreshment’ Campaign. 41

The ‘Sociables campaign’ –  made the way for the Pepsi generation. 42

Pepsi Flashback. 43

Pepsi Concorde. 45

Pepsi Vans then & Now.. 47

Pepsi cafes around the world. 48

Pepsi vintage memorabilia. 51

The exclusive Pepsi installation from the 2016 Milan Fashion week. 52

Biography. 54

 

Pepsi Pete- The World’s First Singing Advertisement

 

(Above) Pepsi Pete – the world’s first singing advertisement.

 

Pepsi Time-Line

 

1893 Pepsi’s fore-runner ‘Brads Drink, was developed
1902 Pepsi was bottled and distributed to consumers. It was sold in 12 ounce bottles and marketed with the slogan, ‘Twice as much for a nikel too’.
1906 In 1906 The Pure Food Drug Act  was enacted, Pepsi did not have to change its formula as it was seen as safe enough for a child to drink.  Pepsi was rescued in 1930’s with the launch of 12-ounce bottle for a nickel. Poor people bought Pepsi it became known as the ‘drink of the poor’.

Marketers sought to bring “ Pepsi out of the kitchen and into the living room,”

 

1916

1916 Pepsi Pete, was born in celebration after Pepsi won the right to use the name Cola. He featured in the world’s first singing advertisement in the cinemas. Emotional appeals are triggers which influence consumer behaviour and impact cognitive influences.  Even when a product is well established within the market place, consumer interest is raised by new offers, such as the Pepsi Challenge and point reward campaigns.[1]. When the MAO is on low effort Pepsi, has to become more creative to keep a foothold in the Cola war zone
1918 In 1918, the Pepsi brand suffered bankruptcy, which was followed by another bankruptcy.[2]
1932 The Loft Soda Fountain Company took over Pepsi. Pepsi was popular with families as the diffusion with Pepsi was synonymous with lifestyle.
  The ‘Be Sociable campaign shifted consumer confidence and brand loyalty. Creative genius- Mr John Bergin, and former Pepsi advertising man- criticized his first attempt, to make Pepsi sociable, claiming it was a stuffy nonsensical and was not representative of the target market.
1940 Pepsi had the innovation to employ Walter Mack an Afro American chief executive. This gave Pepsi the platform they needed to ensure success in the Afro-American marketed. A team of twelve black salesmen quickly sold Pepsi as the preferred Cola of choice. Many of these men went onto other firms as senior executives post-war.[3]

There are inherent differences such as issues of Individualism versus collectivism. Consumers from cultures high in individualism. Research has shown Western Cultures, place more emphasis on themselves as individuals than as part of the group;

consumers from cultures high in collectivism. Whereas, Eastern cultures emphasize connections to others rather than their own individuality.

 

1946 After WWI Pepsi edged to gain a market position, against war brand communities and psychological resistance through inventing the Pepsi Generation. The original advertisement featured sophisticated seniors, this appealed and won over the approval of parents. [4]

 

 

1959 July 24th 1959 – The Kitchen debate- USA Senator Nixon- was dared to get a Pepsi into the hands of USSR [5] Nikita Khrushchev, and as a consequence, the USSR awarded a 20 year[6] contract to Pepsi in 1972, the very first such deal in history.
1963 The Pepsi next campaign, ‘come alive, you’re in the Pepsi generation,’ superseded Coca Cola sales. Pepsi gained their market position in 1963, through a generation which never wanted to hear about war again. The lyrics ‘You got a lot to live, and Pepsi’s got a lot to give’,won consumers hearts around the globe for over an 8 year years. The methodology behind the marketing concept was based upon social normative values and attitudes, suggesting to a consumer, if you like the people in this commercial?  Then you will like the product- As part of a consumer slogan contest, the winner won a car.
1972 Pepsi struck a deal with USSR to supply Pepsi in exchange for Vodka and other Soviet Liquor. The First USA product to be produced marketed in the Soviet Union. This was a new field for USA and Pepsi showed the USA could serve the interests and this deal is known as the symbol of, ‘da tante’.[7]

Pierre Borduieu (1971) recognizes social norms as Habitus and this arises from the fields various contexts. Critical social theory and classical theory was influenced by The temperance movements, civil rights and black power movements Soviet socialism [8]Pepsi were innovators not selling Pepsi but a lifestyle, [9]

 

 

 

March 1999 Pepsi launched the PepsiCo corporate banner

 

Nikita Khrushchev (1894–1971) Pepsi (please see previous table)

New Pepsi Innovations

Human Loop

 

Monkey king Family

 

 

 

                                     PEPSI

 

Case Study Analysis

 

Introduction

The democratization of cultural capital, has seen the brand Pepsi become a world leader in consumer engagement, through the endorsement of markets overlooked by its fierce rival. [10] It is the cultural bridge Pepsi provides, which sustains its normative global market place values.

 

Pepsi has consistently Implemented concepts which have led to growth change and improvement- via the data analytics and a review of terms perspectives, research paradigms and methodologies analyzing the Pepsi consumer experiences.

Consumers gain confidence in a brand via positive social influence. In London Pepsi collaborated with Uber, and gave consumers a “Back to the Future Experience” in the ‘Back to the Future’ Uber car,[11] and treated consumers to a New Generation Cola.[12]’. Consumer experiences such as these are highly innovative. Pepsi are known for cutting edge creativity such as the bus stop hoaxes’.[13] This situational involvement is a highly effective marketing tool, which builds on the consumer’s curiosity and has implanted an effective involvement from consumers[14]

Through analyzing the cognitive responses and consumer behavior attitudes it is apparent consumers are motivated to leave the ordinary, once the optimal level of stimulation (OSL) is set at the consumers perceived level.  OSL is affected by repeated purchase and consumers will make a receptive purchase choice to escape monotony. [15]Pepsi has kept consumers OSL high due to Pepsi’s ongoing updates on packaging, Pepsi innovations and Pepsi challenges.

Marketing Implications

 

The new Pepsi campaign fits in with consumers looking for vicarious exploration as all consumers across the globe are invited to participate freely in the ‘LiveForNow’- ‘Pepsimoji’ campaign. This campaign can accommodate consumers on all social media levels. Social Media and viral marketing is most effective when it is uncluttered, fun and engaging. [16]

The Pepsi product lifestyle pattern depicts fad fashion and Classic genre. Disposition controversy’s such as Compulsive behavior are attached to the consumption of cola drinks.[17] The imagery in the Pepsi advertisements releases pleasant visual sensory perceptions and emotions. This imagery stimulus triggers emotional cognitive responses which have assisted Pepsi, to gain a foothold as a world leading Cola supplier. This was possible via the launch of loyalty programs, such as – ‘The Pepsi challenge’ where the more Pepsi a consumer drank, the more points the consumer earned to trade off for gifts. Pepsi have utilized product placement, created movie and sporting merchandise. Pepsi created the next generation and enlisted celebrity rock music endorsement.[18]

Pepsi consumers have established cultural capital within their own ‘brand community’. Borduieu asserted cultural capital reproduced the class structure of society. Consumers are somewhat beholden to the elites who hold the capital. Bordieu said by the replications of class and notions of reflexive sociology we can deepen our position of our own self, be curious, reflect and be skeptical of our own views. All of the stimulus consumers have been exposed to, influences us.[19]

 

 

The Mere Exposure Effect

 

Consumers insist a product fits in with their perceived lifestyle. When the risk is low to consumers, the complexity, amount, repetition and a control of information instills brand confidence. [20]Consumers often perceive social risk as loss in social standing. Pepsi was once known as the ‘poor man’s drink’; Pepsi lifted all consumer uncertainty in regards to social standing and taste through the implementation of the ‘sociable advertisements.’ Exposure is crucial to stimulating thoughts and feelings. The more readily available a product the more likely consumers are to purchase it. [21]Consumers seek out certain stimuli and yet avoid others.[22] The #PepsiMoji campaign was first trialed in Canada last year.[23] The commercial featured a silent marriage proposal done in an international language with #PepsiMojis. [24] (Below right)

Pepsimoji Wedding proposal

 

Pepsi officially launched the “Pepsimoji’ commercials during the Super Bowl. The new ‘Pepsimoji’ appeals to consumers cognitive stimuli Vollmers (1995) &  D’Astous & Chartier (2000).[25]  The five second advertisements were launched during the 2016 Super Bowl.[26]  Designed by advertising agencies QuiteMan and New York’s, Motive Advertising agency. [27] The frequency of the advertisements which are instantly recognizable after a Super Bowl, Kihlstrom (1987),[28] will guarantee a 2% spike in sales Zajonc’s (1980).[29] Pepsi’s latest advertising fad is a return to historical Pepsi advertisements with a comical twist. [30]

Beverage Advertising at the USA Super Bowl 1990- 1999

 

Super Bowl US viewership and advertising costs during 1990–2000 Table.[31]

Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
USA

viewership (millions)

 

110.0 112.1 119.7 133.4 134.8 120.0 138.51 128.9 138.5 127.5 134.0
($) Average cost per 30-second commercial

 

700K 800K 825K 850K 900K 1Mill 1.mill 1.2mill 1.3mill 1.6mill 2.2mill
($) Cost per consumer

 

 

0.0064 0.0071 0.0069 0.0064 0.0067 0.0083 0.0079 0.0093 0.0094 0.0126 0,0164

The attractive size and demographics of the Super Bowl audience, means companies are eager to invest in game advertising. Research has demonstrated that consumers are keenly attentive to Super Bowl advertisements. (Gunter and Furnham,1997& Elliott, 1999; Freeman, 1999). [32]

Body of paper

Pepsi adopted a Horizontal versus vertical orientation. Consumers from cultures with a horizontal orientation value equality,[33] whereas consumers from cultures with a vertical orientation put more emphasis on hierarchy.

Pepsi’s consumer target audience the Millenials, are the highest group of consumers in the USA there are 80 million in the group and these younger consumers demand CSR from corporations.[34] Children have engaged with the ‘Pepsimoji’ campaign. This consumer engagement has little to do with the cola product,[35]  and more to do with the brand Pepsi Ye & van Raaij,(1997).[36] The contemporary phenomenon of ‘brand’ is addressed within a Peircean semiotic framework, showing a ‘brand’ to be an inherently unstable composite of tangible product and intangible brand values.  [37] Academics perceive brand strategy through a correlation of definitions. “New economy’ branding with an internet focus has three phenomena 1) ‘Genericide’, 2) ‘Ingredient branding’, and 3) ‘Viral marketing’.[38] This ‘dissertation specifically focused on explicit measures of recall’ Vollmers, (1995)

Pepsi has a new corporate identity, the designers were sourced from Arnell Associates. The new logo, is rumored to incorporate subtle design elements uncovered the “Breathtaking Design Strategy”.[39]

Social Influences on Consumer behavior.

The Theory of reasoned Action (TORA) is an academic theory discovered by Martin Fishbein, (1936-2009) and Icek Aizen, a student of Fishbein’s . The academic partnership has been a lifelong collaboration since  the 1960’s into the principles of involuntary behavior.  This theory assists marketers to gain a deeper understanding of consumer attitude and involuntary behavior. These academics found consistent underpinnings on consumer behavioral intentions. Involuntary consumer behavior attitude is an indicator, of what drives consumer behavior. A consumer’s behavioral intention leads to their actual behavior. Many consumers formed a positive attitude toward the Pepsi brand. The desirability of the behavior to consume Pepsi fits in with preconceived subjective norms which are cemented and grounded

TORA uses two predictors of behavior – Attitude and subjective norms. The theory of reasoned action describes the relationship between behavioral intent and subjective norms what others expect of you. The Theory of reasoned action is the belief perception leads to the motivation to comply with the group subjective norms. [40]

Common culture Pierre Bordieu, he first recognized consistent social influence underpinnings triggered a connectivity to a particular field, similarly Consumer Behavioral researchers have identified these societal reference groups. [41]Bordieu rethought the concept of class and hegemony as defined by Marx. Borduieu recognized four forms of economic capital, social capital, cultural capital and symbolic capital. Each of these categories of social capital formed the foundations for the marketing concepts and strategies launched by Pepsi.

Normative factors & the TORA model

 

 

Marketers are interested not only in how attitudes are formed and can be changed, but also in

knowing whether- when, and why attitudes will predict behaviour. The Theory of Reasoned Action (The TORA) model, comes the closest to providing this information by predicting which factors affect consumers’ behaviour. The TORA framework recognises the normative factors which contribute to the attitude- behavioural responses expected of a consumer.

 

Marketers cannot always predict what consumers will actually do. Therefore, marketers also need to consider which factors affect the consumer’s attitude-behaviour relationship.

Some factors which affect a consumer’s attitude will influence his or her behaviour:

The latest campaign has a high Level of involvement. Consumer attitudes are more likely to predict behaviour when cognitive

 

Positive emotions attract consumers to the product. Pepsi marketing has maintained an emotional connection connecting with the consumer. Pepsi has effectively targeted consumers on a global level, through strong beliefs and normative beliefs. Emotional appeals which relate to the product, The ‘Pepsimoji’ bottles are more effective with younger markets, as they want to vicariously feel the emotion. Feelings and symbolic meanings which are emotionally based attract consumers, who subconsciously believe, the product must be good. Social influence has had a big impact on the Pepsi generation’s success.[42]

Pepsi Consumer Behaviour Table

Personality variables

 

Personality variables are personality traits, whereby consumers have a higher level of brand involvement.[43] This can be seen in consumer patterns of self-monitoring,

Consumer attitudes fall into five main categories

1)    Favorability –  2) accessibility – 3) confidence – 4) persistence and 5) resistance.

 

Reflexivity

 

This reflection considers the moment of introspection, Finlay (2002). Firstly this research considered consumers not as subjects, but as objects. The reflectively and responsiveness regarded the Pepsi data facts as opposed to consumer watching (Givens 2008). Through Qualitive research methods and approaches of the discipline ingrained into the Pepsi brand. It was apparent Pepsi has the capacity to connect all cultures as one. Pepsi is a brand of global appeal with a host of consumers from many diverse cultures.

 

Formality

 

Primary groups are groups consumers have direct contact with such as family, friends and colleagues. Secondary groups influence us but we do not have personal contact with them, it is merely impersonal. [44]
Homophily

 

This describes the commonality among group members and the influence this reference group has over the consumer and is apparent in consumer behavioral attitudes. Groups which are homophilous often share a brand loyalty and seek advice on pre-purchase decisions from their group.[45]

 

Group Attractiveness

 

Group attractiveness effects the consumer’s cognitive perception into conformity, this stems from an individual’s basic social needs. The more affluent a consumer the less likely they are to want to conform to social norms and fads accepted by the general populous conforms; whereas the general populous like connectivity. The more social capital a consumer has, the less they seek networks and social platforms in comparison to those who have less capital.

 

Density

 

In certain sub-cultural groups consumers may have high density influences, which are not always in the consumer’s best interests. These reference groups are based on traditional values which trump the individual consumers own personal interests. This is common in cultural communities where generational links stem back centuries as bonds and ties remain strong.

 

Degree of identification

 

Consumers have various ways to portray their own individuality, the degree of identification to a particular group is not a particular indicator that reference group can influence their consumer decision. On the other hand, sporting events promotional merchandise is supported across all class structures, and supporters clothing is worn proudly regardless of background and social standing.[46]

 

 

Cause related Marketing

 

The La Plaza Arts Centre, a project funded entirely by Pepsico’s philanthropic arm. Pepsi is involved in cause related marketing on a global scale. PepsiCo, uphold CSR and Philanthrophy remains at the core of the corporation. [47]Pepsi’s cause related marketing is primarily focused around Human Sustainability,  Environmental Sustainabilty and Talent sustainabilty. Visionary programs include the ‘Feeding America’ progaram,[48] another notable cause with a global focus “Global Citizenship Fund since 2005, PepsiCo, through its Foundation and divisions, has donated more than $800 million in cash and product to agencies.[49]

 

 

Emotional Attachment Emotional attachment to a brand is a stronger predictor of actual purchase as opposed to brand attitude. Consumers are known to purchase when they have a connection to the brand.

When Nutella, recently launched a social media campaign on Facebook it attracted 11.5 million likes, and generated over 100 000 consumer comments. The #Pepsimoji campaign relates to consumers actual self -image by encouraging consumers to engage and take selfies.[50] This perception is enhanced by consumer engagement via internet interaction resources and connectivity. Pepsi, has targeted the launch to two billion smart phone users sending 6 billion emojis per day.

 

 

Ideal state

 

 

Social influence and engagement marketing, appeals to the ideal state of where consumers want to be. The #LiveForNow has both aspirations and expectations. This marketing strategy has the capacity to reach all socio- economic and cultural boundaries. The Pepsi campaign encourages unity and consumers acceptance for one another, within the Pepsi brand community. There is relative certainty surrounding the Pepsi -PepsiCo brand so consumers are likely to be motivated to engage in the #Pepsimoji campaign as there is little perceived risk to the consumer, ‘just a ‘good time’. The low effort reasoning formed by unconscious influences impacts the consumer’s attitude formed on the Pepsi brand. Consumer perceptions have been effectively changed via peripheral processes and attitudes which stimulate empathetic emotional responses through the familiarity of #Pepsimoji. The familiar visual cues now relate directly to the Pepsi brand. Through cognitive and affective subliminal persuasion.

 

 

Pepsi Products Around the World 2013

 

Pepsi’s Profit Margin 2009-2014

 

Pepsi’s latest Socializing marketing campaign

 

The ‘Live For Now – Pepsimoji’ campaign is multifaceted incorporating the main stream media and social media. Pepsi advertising acts as a socializing agent, depicting ‘good fun times’

The ethnic group and subcultures are represented in the advertisement; coupled with a shared homily as the subjective norms held by the group adapt to a new identity the ‘Live for Now’ generation. From the earliest times to now Pepsi has successfully engaged and adapted to meet the consumer demands on a global scale. Pepsi has a strong identification and is an expert in multicultural marketing. The Marketing strategies adopted by Pepsi appeal to a variety of sub-cultures.

Pepsi’s Classical Conditioning

 

Another effective strategy Pepsi adopted stemmed from classical conditioning, this is known as Evaluative conditioning. This occurs when marketers repeat stimuli which trigger neutral emotional effective responses. These cognitive responses become positive through repetitive advertising campaigns. Research has upheld consumers prefer brands they are familiar with to unknown brands. This is vital for the ‘Pepsimoji’ campaign, [51]where the emotional contagion is engaged yet, the product looks new from the offset. A consumer may mistakenly believe the information they processed was stimuli which they are familiar with and this is then perceived by the consumer as stimuli relating the cognitive receptors to the consumer accepting and liking the product. Drawn from perceptions.

 

Pepsi Engages Consumers

Conclusion

Historically Pepsi, has embraced the concepts of Classical conditioning via the ‘sociables advertisements’ targeted at both the white, and Afro-American sub-cultures. These advertisements produced a response to stimulus, by repeatedly pairing it with another stimulus.

This automatically produces a positive response to the brand- Pepsi as it was perceived to identify with the consumer’s lifestyle.

Pepsi become symbolic as it gained a legitimate position across many fields. Social capital theory laid the structure and typology for a network of social norms. The ‘Pepsi Generation’ has become part of the lexicon of modern society

Consumer Attitudes toward Pepsi tend to be strong and enduring. This is often more predictive of a consumer’s behaviour, when affective involvement is high. These consumer attitudes were formed through the consumers, prior knowledge and experience of the brand Pepsi. This creates an attitude confidence in the PepsiCo brand. Pepsi consumers pre-conceived ideas were formed via situational experiences from positive attitudes and behaviour.[52]

 

Reflective Summary

Pepsi’s success flowed on from a consumer slogan which focused on not selling the product, but on – selling’ good times and fun people’. The commercial had an intergenerational focus. Pepsi upholds the subjective normative values society aspires to become. – This fitted in with the post war generation, who adopted the drink and made the Pepsi community their own aspiration group[53]

Pepsi’s profits soared due to the symbolic value which adjusted consumer behavior and created a brand community. Pepsi has successfully targeted a range of markets. Meaning is transferred from culture to product and consumer. Subcultural trends were interpreted and the Pepsi product was consumed and became the brand of choice. The connectivity within the group achieved Pepsi symbolism as a brand culture. The multi-cultural aspects and gender classes and socio economic groups enjoyed Pepsi.[54] Pepsi established emblematic function via the Sociable campaign. Pepsi has held normative values by employing Afro-Americans as Senior executives, this reinforced the brand identity.

Pepsi has a certain nostalgia attached to its iconic brand, vintage Pepsi products are collectible memorabilia.[55] Pepsi have effectively used comedy in advertising and gained a large degree of Social acceptance throughout the marketplace, throughout a myriad of diverse cultures.[56]  Consumer trends have always seen Pepsi re-create itself. Expediential fads are something Pepsi has always endorsed, and Pepsi have seen a Resurgence & return to vintage advertisements.

(END of Paper)

 

 

Pepsi Nostalgia

 

Pepsi Hits the Arab World

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pepsi’s New Corporate Identity and Logo

 

Design elements incorporated into the latest Pepsi logo consider art history wth a strong focus on symbolism. The new Pepsi logo engages consumers cognitive prosessing, taking into account, the shifts in consume attitudes based on the subjective norms of general society. [57]

 

 

Design Elements behind the Pepsi Logo

The Pepsi logo design elements (above). PepsiCo thrives in a world of global interconnectivitythrough theories such as the TORA, this connectivity is symbolised in the new Pepsi brand. The ‘operating margin’ diplayed in the graph below is a comparative for Pepsi and their USA competitors.

 

Pepsi Logos Throughout Time

 

Pepsi and its Afro- American Appeal

African American consumers act more positively to messages which they identify with; as opposed to weak identifiers in advertisements, Shapiro, MacInnis, Heckler, and Perez (1999).

“Now It’s Pepsi for those who think young” campaign was highly effective with Pepsi consumers.

Pepsi was the First to employ an Afro- American Senior Executive

[58]            Walter Mack

(above) The Afro-American market has more positive attitudes than Anglo-Saxon counterparts, when there are strong ethic identifiers

Pepsi’s Cultural Diversity

 Thailand is a culturally diverse country as only 80% of the entire population are Thai Nationals, many Chinese live in Thailand.

 

 Pepsi makes a splash in Asia

In 1998 China became enthralled with Pepsi and Soccer

In China the Pepsi brand is cutting edge.[59]

In China- an exciting six minute advertisement has become another Pepsi marketing sensation. [60]

(left) Pepsi marketers effectively combine traditional Chinese culture into all marketing campaigns in China.

 

 

 The Pepsi ‘More Bounce to the Ounce’ campaign

 

 

 

Pepsi’s Beverage Portfollio

 

 

Pepsi cans are used to promote movies and art.

 

Pepsi cans

 

(Above) Pepsi has developed new products which appeal to a sophisticated audience including the drink 1893 pictured below are proving a popular alternative to alcohol consumption.

 

 

Pepsi’s Global Revenue 2013

 

[61]

Pepsi in Europe

 

 

Pepsi combines Art & Sport

 

 

 

The ‘Pepsi Refreshment’ Campaign

 

 

[62]

 

The ‘Sociables campaign’ –  made the way for the Pepsi generation.

 

(left) An original Crystal Pepsi

Pepsi Flashback

 

 

 

 

Pepsi Concorde

Greatest Pepsi Space Event

 

Pepsi Vans then & Now

 

 

 

Pepsi cafes around the world

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pepsi vintage memorabilia

Pepsi Collectibles are rare and sought after by the Pepsi brand community.

The exclusive Pepsi installation from the 2016 Milan Fashion week.[63] (Below)

(Above right) Pepsi cooking demonstrations for the elite in Aspen.

 

Compare Pepsi’s new skinny can (above left) and a 1970 bottle of Pepsi (above right)

 

(Above) The creative launch for the Pepsi ‘mini’ can’

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Biography

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] Fugate, D. L. (2007). Neuromarketing: a layman’s look at neuroscience and its potential application to marketing practice. Journal of Consumer Marketing24(7), 385-394.

[2] After WW1 there were mandatory rations on sugar stocks, this impacted Pepsi and led to bankruptcy.

[3] The successful History of Afro-Americans

[4] Although the creator of the advertisements does not like the original ad.

[5] Rubinstein, A. Z. (1973).

[6] Francis, M. J. (1980). Detente or Not ?

[7] Alexander, R. (2013). American Fast Food as Culture and Politics: The Introduction of Pepsi and McDonald’s into the USSR.

[8] Documentary- “A Duel Between Giants -For God, Country and Coca Cola.”

[9] Campbell, A. J. (1997).

 

[10] Coca Cola was never targeted to the Afro-American community until the 1960’s

[11] “BACK TO THE FUTURE UBER” The Perfect Ride

[12] Ping Pong Meets Parkour ft.

 

[13] Unbelievable Bus Shelter

[14] Paint Balls

[15] Millar, M. G., and Tesser, A. (1986).

 

[16] Science Direct online article

[17] Compulsive Behaviour disorders are usually associated with mental health and not socially responsible nor acceptable – The high sugar content in soft-drinks can lead to obesity, Pepsi endorses portion control suggestions on one hand, and on the other hand, Pepsi advertise savings in bulk quantities.

[18] Pepsi have also used product placement in 1990’s Wayne’s World. Gupta, P. B., & Lord, K. R. (1998). Product placement in movies: (Auty)

[19] Sirgy, M. J. (1982).

 

[20] Consumers do not want to shunned by their peers buying outdated food as it could be rotten idea directly from text ibid Consumer behaviour

[21] products. placed at waste level are more likely be purchased the exposure.

[22] ibid

[23] C/o Advertising Age as Canada  has more than one national language.

[24] Pepsi #PepsiMoji “ The Proposal”

[25] Here are six samples of the 5 second global advertisements – C/o AdAge

[26] Malcolm, H., USA TODAY Pepsi goes brevity with five- second ads for emoji bottles

[27] Pepsi Preps Global Emoji Bottle campaign- it is like share a coke without words

 

[28] Tomkovick, C., Yelkur, R., & Christians, L. (2001) An in-depth look at Super Bowl advertising in the 1990s.

[29] Fehle, F., Tsyplakov, S., & Zdorovtsov, V. (2005)

[30] Lynch., J., (Feb 8 2016)

 

[31] C/o Research Gate

[32] MasterLocks original 1973 Super Bowl commercial

[33] The latest Pepsi advertisements have global consumer appeal are five seconds long in duration, although a Pepsi innovation, it is not entirely new Geico ran five second ads in 2014.

[34] Ibid

[35] Janiszewski (1988, 1993) and an earlier study (Shapiro, MacInnis, & Heckler, 1997), indicate that advertisements, even if not explicitly recalled or recognized, may influence consumers especially with regard to the inclusion of a brand in a consideration set.

[36] However children do not have high cognitive recall are impulsive consumers with no sense of economic situations.

[37] Auty, S., & Lewis, C., Exploring Children’s Choice:

[38] Science Direct online Articles

[39] A 27 page document outlines how the theory of relativity, Geodynamo, Feng Shiu and Da Vinci Code inspirations were incorporated into the new brand.

[40] Paul Willis the social cultural theorist, conceives we can have common culture or common capital. Critical social theorists from the Frankfurt School examined the media and held off-shoot groups create their own symbolic resources.

[41] This moved on from Weber’s Classical theory and Karl Marx theorists.

[42] Batra, R., & Ahtola, O. T. (1991).

[43] Tsai, S. P. (2005).

[44] These can be internet forums, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, and fan clubs.

[45] A group which follows a brand is aware of the newest product launches as the brand is pertaining to them.

[46] Football is a game which unites the globe. In April 2016, Pepsi launched a European geared campaign, called ‘blue card’ A soccer-themed campaign that will run in Europe and other global markets includes soccer-inspired emojis, to compliment the ‘Pepsimoji’ campaign. “Pepsi Blue Card,” enlists the talents of James Rodríguez of Real Madrid and Spanish goalkeeper great David de Gea, of Manchester United.

[47] Endacott, R. W. J. (2004). Consumers and CRM:

[48] PepsiCo Feeding America

[49] Pepico Global Citzenship fund from

[50] ibid

[51] Pepsi wisely decided to get some help from photographers for the out-of-home and Instagram elements of the campaign, created by Lloyd&Co. Pepsi has done something similar with its PepsiMoji OOH work, recruiting photographer Ben Watts to create street scenes in which emojis are the interlopers

http://www.adweek.com/adfreak/pepsis-emoji-billboards-and-instagram-photos-are-cool-ways-tv-isnt-171266

 

[52] Please see exhibit 6.1 in the text Hoyer

[53] Hollander, S. C., & Germain, R. (1992). Was there a Pepsi generation before Pepsi discovered it?: Youth-based segmentation in marketing. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books.

[54] Holland, J., & Gentry, J. W. (1999). Ethnic consumer reaction to targeted marketing: A theory of intercultural accommodation.

[55] Pepsi cans with rock stars and celebrity’s and have a sentimental value.

[56] The advertisement with an Italian girl- who speaks like the God Father, is one of the world favorite advertisements.

 

[57] The Gawker Article (21 Oct 2009) Hamilton, N., Breathtaking’ Document Reveals Pepsi’s Logo is Pinnacle of Entire Universe [retrieved from] http://gawker.com/5150582/breathtaking-document-reveals-pepsis-logo-is-pinnacle-of-entire-universe

Gawker’s article.

 

[58]  A Celebrated history 1941- 950 The Pepsi Special Man please see – http://www.realpepsichallenge.com/gallery.html

[59] Pepsico Locke., A., (5 January 2016) bring happiness Home 2016: The Year Monkey King Family

[60] Business Insider -China is going mad for this 6-minute-long Pepsi ad based on a Buddhist myth

 

[61] Holiday recipes from Pepsico kitchen  (17 December 2013) [retrieved from] http://www.pepsico.com/live/story/Holiday-Recipes-from-the-PepsiCo-Kitchen121720131262#Mug_root_beer_sweet_potato

[62] A collection of Vintage Pepsi Vintage advertisements I put together to capture the social influence marketing campaigns –

32 Pepsi Cola Adverts Fr Adults Living The American dream in 1950’s [retrieved from] http://flashbak.com/32-pepsi-cola-adverts-for-adults-living-the-american-dream-1950s-41123/ & Nessy., M.,  30 Ways to be Sociable

 

 

[63] DE Zeem  (21 April 2016) Milan Design week 2016 http://www.dezeen.com/2016/04/21/pepsico-hire-more-designers-critical-mass-design-people-mauro-porcini-indra-nooyi-milan-2016/

 

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